## A-Level

# Physics

Scroll down to learn more about our GCSE, A-Level, IB or CBSE offering. Please reach out to [email protected] with any questions or enquiries.

# GCSE Biology - AQA

69 Lessons

69 Lessons

Communities

Abiotic Factors & Biotic Factors

Adaptations

Levels of Organisation [I]

Levels of Organisation [II]

How Materials are Cycled

Decomposition

Impact of Environmental Change

Biodiversity, Waste Management & Land Use

Deforestation & Global Warming

Maintaining Biodiversity

Trophic Levels

Pyramids of Biomass & Transfer of Biomass

Factors Affecting Food Security & Farming Techniques

Sustainable Fisheries & Role of Biotechnology

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction & Their Advantages and Disadvantages

Meiosis

DNA and the Genome

DNA Structure

Genetic Inheritance

Inherited Disorders & Sex Determination

Variation & Evolution

Selective Breeding

Genetic Engineering

Cloning

Theory of Evolution

Speciation

The Understanding of Genetics

Evidence for Evolution, Fossils & Extinction

Resistant Bacteria

Classification of Living Organisms

Homeostasis & Structure and Function

The Brain & The Eye

Control of Body Temperature

Human Endocrine System

Control of Blood Glucose Concentration

Maintaining Water and Nitrogen Balance in the Body

Hormones in Human Reproduction & Contraception

The Use of Hormones to Treat Infertility & Negative Feedback

Plant Hormones

Photosynthetic Reaction & Rate of Photosynthesis

Uses of Glucose from Photosynthesis

Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Responses to Exercise & Metabolism

Infectious Diseases, Viral Diseases & Bacterial Diseases

Fungal Diseases & Protist Diseases

Human Defence Systems & Vaccination

Antibiotics and Painkillers & Discovery and Development of Drugs

Monoclonal Antibodies

Plant Disease

Principles of Organisation

The Human Digestive System

Required Practicals

The Heart and Blood Vessels

Blood

Coronary Heart Disease

Health Issues, The Effect of Lifestyle & Cancer

Plant Tissues

Plant Organ System

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

Animal and Plant Cells

Cell Specialisation and Differentiation

Microscopy

Culturing Microorganisms

Chromosomes & Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Stem Cells

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Transport

# Flyp Academy

69 Lessons

69 Lessons

# Learn all about content

Aug 13

Flyp Academy

## SL

5 Topics

Standard Level

Limits

Rate of Change and Introduction to Derivatives

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Power Rules and Derivatives of Different Functions

Tangents and Their Equations

Normals and Their Equations

Anti-Derivatives

Boundary Condition

Definite Integrals and Area Under The Curve

Local Maxima and Minima

Optimisation Problems

Trapezoid Rule

Data & Types of Data

Sampling and Sampling Technique

Data Representation & Frequency Tables

Histograms

Mean, Median and Mode

Variance and Standard Deviation

Bivariate Analysis and Scatter Plots

Regression and Scatter Plots

Introduction to Probability

Independent and Dependent Events

Venn Diagrams

Tree Diagrams

Mutually Exclusive Events

Discrete Random Variables

Binomial Distributions and their Means and Variance

Normal Distributions and Parameters of Normal Distributions

Key Features of Normal Distributions

Probability Calculations Using Normal Distributions and Inverse Normal Distributions

Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

Hypothesis Testing

P-Value and Type I and II Errors

Lower-Tailed, Upper-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests

Critical Region and T-Value

Goodness of Fit

Chi-Squared Test of Independence

Pythagoras’ Theorem

Distance and Mid-Point Formula

Volume and Surface Area

Trigonometric Ratios

Area Using Trigonometry

Sine Rule

Cosine Rule

Angles of Elevation and Depression

Bearings

Circles

Perpendicular Bisector and Point of Intersection

Voronoi Diagrams and Their Uses

Construction of Voronoi Diagrams

Introduction to Equations

Gradients and Intercepts

Gradients of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Functions & Domains and Ranges

Graphs of Functions

Inverse Functions

Graphs

Introduction to Models & Linear Models

Linear Models & Piecewise Linear Models

Quadratic Models

Applications of Quadratic Models

Exponential Models & Development of These Models

Exponential Models, General Form and Other Forms & Interpretations

Trigonometric Models

Direct Variation and Modelling Using Direct Variation

Inverse Variation and Modelling Using Inverse Variation

Modelling Skills

Examples of Modelling Skills

Writing Numbers in Scientific Form

Arithmetic Sequences and Series

Geometric Sequences and Series

Financial Applications of Geometric Sequences and Series

Law of Exponents with Integer Exponents

Logarithms

Approximations

Bunds

Percentage Error

## HL

5 Topics

Higher Level

Derivatives [Trigonometric Functions]

Derivatives [Exponential and Logarithmic Functions]

Second Derivatives

Use of Second Derivatives

Integration

Integration by Substitution

Area Enclosed by a Curve

Area Enclosed by a Curve [along y-axis]

Integration – Volumes of Revolution

Kinematics

Differential Equations

Separable of Variables

Slope Fields

Euler’s Method

Predator-Prey Problem

Coupled Differential Equations

Second Order Differential Equations

Data Colection

Chi-Squared Test for the Goodness of Fit

Reliability and Validity

Non-Linear Regression

Coefficient of Determination

Evaluation of R^2

Linear Transformation

Linear Combination

Central Limit Theorem

Confidence Interval for Means

Poisson Distribution

Normal Distribution

Probability of Binomial and Poisson Distribution

Type I and II Error

Markov Chains

Matrix Application

Example of Matrix Application/Markov Chains

Arc Lengths and Areas of Sectors

Conversion Between Radians and Degrees

Trigonometric Functions in Terms of Unit Circle

Graphs of Sine and Cosine Functions

Graphs of Tangent Functions

Matric Basic Theorem

Horizontal and Vertical Shearing

Composition of Two Transformations

Fractals

Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication

Unit Vectors and Base Vectors

Parametric Equations of Lines

Kinematics

Scalar Products

Vector Products

Graph Theory

Diagraph

Hand Shaking Theorem

Adjacency Matrices

Adjacency Matrices and Walks

Path, Walk and Trail

Hamiltonian Graphs

Trees

Spanning Trees

Weighted Graphs and Greedy Algorithms

Travelling Salesman Problem

Composite Functions

Inverse Functions

Transformation of a Graph

Transformation of a Graph [Vertical and Horizontal Stretch of a Function]

Exponential Models

Natural Logarithmic Models

Trigonometric and Sinusoidal Models

Sine and Cosine Graphs

Logistic Models

Parameters for Logistic Models

Piecewise Models

Linearising Data

Laws of Logarithms

Simplification of Numerical & Algebraic Expressions

Sum of Infinite Geometric Sequences

Complex Numbers

Polar Forms of Complex Numbers

Exponential Form of Complex Numbers

Conversion Among Cartesian, Polar anad Exponential Complex Numbers

Sinusoidal Function

Geometric Representation of Complex Numbers

Types of and Fundamentals of Matrices

Addition, Subtraction and Scalar Multiplication of Matrices

Properties of Matrix Multiplication

Inverse Matrix & Linear Equations

Eigenvalue, Eigenvector and Diagonalisation

# SL

5 Topics

Standard Level

Derivatives

Composite Functions and their Derivatives

Product and Quotient Rule

Critical Points

Optimisation

Kinematics

Indefinite Integrals

Integrals of Important Functions

Integration by Substitution

Definite Integrals

Area Under the Curve

Bivariate Statistics

Covariance and Correlation

Regression Line

Conditional Probability

Normal Distribution

Standardising Variables

Inverse Normal Distribution

Introduction to Sine and Cosine

Evaluation of Trigonometric Functions

The Ambiguous Case of the Law of Sines

Trigonometric Identities

Relationship Between Trigonometric Ratios

Circular Functions

Trigonometric Functions

Composite Function

Quadratic Function

Solution of Quadratic Function

Solving Quadratic Equations and Inequalities

Reciprocal and Rational Functions

Solving Systems of Linear Equations

Introduction to Transformation

Reflection

Stretching and Shrinking

Introduction to Logarithms

Laws of Exponents with Rational Exponents

Properties of Logarithms

Infinite Geometric Series

Binomial Theorem

# HL

5 Topics

Higher Level

Limits

Properties of Limits

Differentiation Using First Principles

Rules of Differentiation

Indeterminate Form

Introduction to Implicit Differentiation

Implicit Differentiation

Introduction to Related Rates

Related Rates

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Derivatives of Exponential Functions

Derivatives of Arc Sine and Arc Cosine

Derivative of Arc Tangent

Partial Fractions and Integration

Integration by Substitution

Integration by Parts

Area of the Region Enclosed by Curves

Introduction to First Order Differential Equations

Separable Variables

MacLaurin Series

Introduction to Bayes’ Theorem

General Form of Bayes’ Rule

Discrete Random Variables and their Variance

Contnuous Random Variables

Median and Mode of Continuous Random Variables

Mean, Variance and Standard Deviation of Both Discrete and Continuous Random Variables

The Effect of Linear Transformations of X

Pythagorean Identities

Compound Angle and Double Angle Identities

Trigonometric Functions

Introduction to Vectors

Magnitude, Component and Displacement Vector

Scalar Products

Vector Equations

Vector Equations Using Direction Vectors

Cartesian Form

Intersecting, Parallel and Skew Straight Lines

Vector Products

Geometrical Interpretation of Vector Products

Introduction to Planes

Vector Equations of Planes

Parametric Equations of Planes

Angles Between Planes

Introduction to Polynomial Functions

Roots of Polynomial Functions

Remainder and Factor Theorem

Sum and Product of Roots

Rational Functions

Odd and Even Functions

Inverse of a Function

Graphs of Functions

Binomial Expansion

Counting Principle, Permutations and Combinations

Partial Fractions

Complex Numbers

Modulus Argument and Euler Form

De Moivre’s Theorem

Power and Roots of Complex Numbers

Methods of Proofs

Solutions of Systems of Linear Equations

# Global Change

3 Topics

Global Change

Global Trends in Consumption

Impacts of Changing Trends in Resource Consumption

Resource Stewardship

Causes of Global Climate Change

Consequences of Global Climate Change

Responding to Global Climate Change

Population and Economic Development Patterns

Changing Populations and Places

Challenges and Opportunities

# Global Interactions

3 Topics

Global Interactions

Geopolitical and Economic Risks

Global Networks and Flows

Local and Global Resilience

Development Opportunities

Changing Identities and Cultures

Local Responses to Global Interactions

Global Interactions and Global Power

Global Networks and Flows

Human and Physical Influences on Global Interactions

# Optional Themes

3 Topics

Optional Themes

The Variety of Urban Environments

Changing Urban Systems

Urban, Environmental, and Social Stresses

Building Sustainable Urban Systems for the Future

Changing Leisure Patterns

Tourism and Sport at the Local and National Scale

Tourism and Sport at the International Scale

Managing Tourism and Sport for the Future

Geophysical Systems

Geophysical Hazard Risks

Hazard Risk and Vulnerability

Future Resilience and Adaptation

# IBDP English

19 Lessons

19 Lessons

The Individual Oral

Paper 1

Paper 2

HL Essay

ELL and the Core

Review of Course Aims

Readers, Writers, Texts

Time and Space

Intertextuality

Identity

Culture

Creativity

Communication

Perspective

Transformation

Representation

# IB Core

3 Lessons

SL & HL

Extended Essay

Creativity, Activity, Service [CAS]

Theory of Knowledge [TOK]

# IB Chemistry

69 Lessons

SL and HL

Uncertainties and Errors in Measurement and Results

Graphical Techniques

Spectroscopic Identification of Organic Compounds

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

Functional Group Chemistry

[HL] Types of Organic Reactions

[HL] Synthetic Routes

[HL] Stereoisomerism

Oxidation and Reduction

[SL] Electrochemical Cells

[HL] Electrochemical Cells

Theories of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases

The pH Scale

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Acid Deposition

[HL] Lewis Acids and Bases

[HL] Calculations Involving Acids and Bases

[HL] pH Curves

Equilibria

[HL] The Equilibrium Law

Collision Theory and Rates of Reaction

[HL] Rate Expression and Reaction Mechanism

[HL] Activation Energy

Measuring Energy Changes

Hess’ Law

Bond Enthalpies

Energy Cycles

Entropy and Spontaneity

Ionic Bonding and Structure

Covalent Bonding

Covalent Structures

Intermolecular Forces

Metallic Bonding

Further Aspects of Covalent Bonding and Structure

Hybridisation

Periodic Table

Periodic Trends

First-Row D-Block Elements

Coloured Complexes

The Nuclear Atom

Electron Configuration

Electrons in Atoms

Introduction to the Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Change

Introduction to the Concept of Moles

Reacting Masses and Volumes

Gas Laws

Concentration

# IB Business

66 Lessons

66 Lessons

Costs and Revenues

Break Even Analysis

Quality Assurance

Location

Innovation

Production Planning

Project Management

The Role of Marketing

Marketing Approaches

Marketing Plan

Market Research

Product

The Boston Matrix

Price

Promotion and Place

International Marketing and Ecommerce

Production Methods

Sources of Finance

Investment Appraisal

Working Capital

Budgeting

Human Resource Planning

Organisational Structure

Communication

Leadership and Management

Motivation

Organisational and Corporate Cultures

Crisis Management and Contingency Planning

Sources of Finance

Investment Appraisal

Working Capital

The Nature of Business Activity

Types of Organisations

Organisational Objectives

Stakeholders

External Environment

Organisational Planning Tools

Growth and Evolution

Change and the Management of Change

Globalisation

# Learn all about content

Aug 13

Day two of the conference will be devoted to learning about content creation.

# Core

6 Topics

Core

Digestion and Absorption

The Blood System

Defence Against Infectious Disease

Gas Exchange

Neurons and Synapses

Hormones, Homeostasis and Reproduction

Evidence for Evolution

Natural Selection

Classification of Biodiversity

Cladistics

Species, Communities and Ecosystems

Energy Flow

Carbon Cycling

Climate Change

Genes

Chromosomes

Meiosis

Inheritance

Genetic Modification and Biotechnology

Molecules to Metabolism

Water is the Medium of Life

Carbohydrates and Lipids

Proteins

Enzymes

Structure of DNA and RNA

DNA Replication, Transcription and Translation

Cell Respiration

Photosynthesis

Introduction to Cells

Ultrastruture of the Cells

Membrane Structure

Membrane Transport

Origin of Cells

Cell Division

Examination Technique

# Additional Higher Level

5 Topics

Additional Higher Level

Antibody Production and Vaccination

Movement

The Kidney and Osmoregulation

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis

Inheritance

Gene Pool and Speciation

Transport in the Xylem of Plants

Transport in the Phloem of Plants

Growth in Plants

Reproduction in Plants

Metabolism

Cell Respiration

Photosynthesis

DNA Structure and Replication

Transcription and Gene Expression

Translation

# Introductory Topics in Psychology

4 Topics

Introductory Topics

Definitions of Abnormality

Explanations of Depression

Treating Depression

Characteristics and Explanations of Phobias

Treatments of Phobias

Explanations of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Treatments of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Caregiver & Infant Interaction

Animal Studies

Explanations of Attachment

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Maternal Deprivation

Institutionalisation

Influence of Early Attachment

Introduction

Multi-Store Model

Long-Term Memory

Working Memory Model

Forgetting

Eyewitness Testimony

Improving Eyewitness Testimony

Conformity

Social Roles

Milgram

Obedience

Dispositional Explanations

Resistance to Social Influence

Minority Influence

Social Change

# Psychology in Context

3 Topics

Psychology in Context

Experimental Method

Experimental Design

Hypotheses

Observational Techniques

Self-Report

Correlations

Content Analysis

Case Studies

Sampling Techniques

Ethics

Reliability & Validity

Reporting Psychological Investigations

Psychology as a Science

Types of Data

Descriptive Statistics

Presentation of Data

The Sign Test

Inferential Statistics

Examination Technique – Extended Writing

The Nervous System

Neurons

The Endocrine System

Fight or Flight

Localisation of Function in the Brain

Split Brain Research

Plasticity of the Brain

Ways of Studying the Brain

Biological Rhythms

Origins of Psychology

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Social Learning Theory

Cognitive Approach

Biological Approach

Psychodynamic Approach

Humanist Approach

Comparisons of Approaches

# Issues and Options

4 Topics

Issues and Options

Neural & Hormonal Explanations

Ethological Explanations

Evolutionary Explanations

Social Explanations

Institutional Aggression

Media Influences

Examination Technique

Classification of Schizophrenia

Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

Drug Therapy

Psychological Therapy

Interactionist Approach

Examination Technique

Evolutionary Explanations

Factors Affecting Attraction

Theories of Romantic Relationships

Relationship Breakdown

Virtual Relationships

Parasocial Relationships

Examination Technique

Gender & Culture Bias

Free Will & Determinism

Nature & Nurture

Holism & Reductionism

Idiographic & Nomothetic

Socially Sensitive Research

# AS-Level

5 Topics

AS-Level

Basics of Electricity

Current-Voltage Characteristics

Resistivity

Circuits

Potential Divider

Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance

Scalars and Vectors

Moments

Motion Along a Straight Line

Projectile Motion

Newton’s Laws of Motion

Momentum

Work, Energy and Power

Conservation of Energy

Bulk Properties of Solids

The Young Modulus

Progressive, Stationary and Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal and Transverse Waves

Principle of Superposition of Waves and Formation of Stationary Waves

Interference

Diffraction

Refraction at a Plane Surface

Constituents of the Atom

Stable and Unstable Nuclei

Particles, Antiparticles and Photons

Particle Interactions

Classification of Particles

Quarks and Antiquarks

Application of Conservation Laws

The Photoelectric Effect

Collisions of Electrons with Atoms

Energy Levels and Photon Emission

Wave-Particle Duality

Use of SI Units and their Prefixes

Limitations of Physical Measurements

Estimation of Physical Quantities

# A-Level

5 Topics

A-Level

The Concept of Moment or Inertia, Rotational Kinetic Energy, Rotational Motion

Torque and Angular Acceleration, Angular Momentum, Work and Power

The First Law of Thermodynamics, Non-Flow Processes, the p-V Diagram

Engine Cycles

Second Law and Engines

Reversed Heat Engines

Physics of Vision, Defects of Vision and their Correction Using Lenses

Ear as a Sound Detection System, Sensitivity and Frequency Response, Defects of Hearing

Simple ECG Machines and the Normal ECG Waveform

Ultrasound Imaging, Fibre Optics and Endoscopy

Magnetic Resonance (MR) Scanner

The Physics of Diagnostic X-Rays, Image Detection and Enhancement

Absorption of X-Rays, The CT Scanner

Imaging Techniques, Half Life

The Gamma Camera, Use of High-Energy X-Rays, Use of Radioactive Implants, Imaging Comparisons

Rutherford Scattering

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

Radioactive Decay

Nuclear Instability

Nuclear Radius

Mass and Energy

Induced Fission

Safety Aspects

Fields

Newton’s Law and Gravitational Field Strength

Gravitational Potential

Orbits of Planets and Satellites

Coulomb’s Law

Electric Field Strength

Electric Potential

Capacitance, Parallel Plate Capacitor and Energy Stored by a Capacitor

Capacitor Charge and Discharge

Magnetic Flux Density and Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field

Magnetic Flux and Flux Linkage

Electromagnetic Induction

Alternating Currents and the Operation of a Transformer

Circular Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion [SHM]

Simple Harmonic Systems

Forced Vibrations and Resonance

Thermal Energy Transfer

Ideal Gases

Molecular Kinetic Theory Model

# Paper 1

8 Topics

Pure Mathematics

Integration

Reverse processes

Equation of the curve

Definite integrals

Evaluation of limits

Area under a curve

Volumes of revolution

Rate of change

Derivatives

Derivative notation

Gradient of curves

Derivatives of composite functions

The chain rule

Tangent and normal

Increasing and decreasing functions

Stationary points

Binomial expansion

Arithmetic progression

Geometric progression

Sum to infinity

Trigonometric functions

Trigonometric ratios

Inverse trigonometric ratios

Trigonometric identities

Trigonometric equations

Conversion between radians and degrees

Sectors and segments

Lengths of arcs

Areas of sectors

Distances and midpoints

Gradients

Line equations

Perpendicular bisector

Definition of Functions

Composite Functions

Inverse Functions

Inverse Quadratic Functions

Graph Transformations

Function Stretches and Reflections

Quadratic Polynomials

Quadratic Models

Graphs

Roots

Quadratic Formula

Disguised Quadratic Equations

Quadratic Inequalities

# Paper 3

9 Topics

Pure Mathematics

Complex numbers

Imaginary part

Real part

Polar form of complex numbers

Exponential form of complex numbers

Cartesian

Polar

Modulus-argument form

Euler form

Complex conjugate roots

De Moivre’s theorem

Powers and roots of complex numbers

Differential equations

First order differential equations

Variables separation

Vector addition

Scalar multiplication

Unit vector

Base vector

Parametric equations of lines

Intersecting lines

Parallel lines

Skew lines

Scalar product

Vector product

Locating roots of an equation

Change of sign method

Approximate solution of an equation

Iteration method

Antiderivatives

Indefinite integrals

Integration of trigonometric functions

Exponential functions

Integration by substitution

Integration by inspection

Partial fractions

Integrand

Derivative of trigonometric functions

Derivative of exponential and logarithmic functions

Product rule

Quotient rule

Trig ratios

Trigonometric ratios

Sine

Cosine

Tangent

Angles

Area of a triangle

Mathematical representations

Cosine rule

Pythagorean identity

Trigonometric identities

Circular functions

Periodic nature

Laws of exponents

Logs with base 10

Logs with base e

Expressing rational exponents

Radicals

Logarithmic functions

Properties of logarithms

Change of base law

Equations

Graphs

Zeros

Roots

Factors

Roots of polynomial functions

Solving quadratic functions

Remainder theorem

Factor theorem

Synthetic division

Long division

# Paper 4

5 Topics

Mechanics

Work

Energy

Kinetic energy

Gravitational potential energy

Power

Newton’s laws of motion

Newtonian mechanics

Applications

Law of conservation of momentum

Law of conservation

Distance

Displacement

Acceleration

Displacement time graphs

Velocity time graphs

Forces

Equilibrium

Friction

Normal contact force

Coefficient of friction

Smooth inclined plane

Limiting friction

Resultant force

# Paper 5

5 Topics

Statistics and Probability

Normal distributions

Mean

Mode

Median

Variance

Standard deviation

Binomial distribution

Random variables

Types of events

Probability of events

Mutually exclusive events

Equally-likely events

Venn diagrams

Tree diagrams

Multiplication for probabilities

Conditional probability

Permutations

Combinations

Types of data

Ranges and quartiles

Box and whisker plots

Frequency distribution tables

Histograms

Bar charts

Cumulative frequency

Mean

Median

Mode

Variance

Standard deviation

# Paper 6

5 Topics

Statistics and Probability

Hypotheses

P-values

Statistical significance

Type I errors

Type II errors

Types of tests

Types of errors

Random sampling

Non-random sampling

Normal distribution

Central limit theorem

Unbiased estimators

Confidence intervals

Continuous random variables

Probability density functions

Mean

Median

Mode

Variance

Standard deviation

Range

Poisson distribution

Binomial distribution

Mean

Median

Mode

Variance

Standard deviation

Range

Poisson distribution

Mean

Median

Mode

Variance

Standard deviation

Range

# Physical Geography

3 Topics

Physical Geography

Nature, Forms and Potential Impacts

The Park Model and the Hazard Management Cycle

The Earth’s Structure, Internal Energy Sources and the Theory of Plate Tectonics

Plate Boundaries and Margins

Seismicit, Vulcanicity and Magma Plumes

Volcanic Hazards

Volcanic Hazards – Impacts and Responses

Seismic Hazards

Seismic Hazards – Impacts and Responses

Case Study: Impacts of and Responses to Seismic Hazards – Haiti

Storm Hazards

Storm Hazards – Impacts and Responses

Case Study: Impacts of and Responses to Storm Hazards – Hurricane Harvey

Case Study: Impacts of and Responses to Storm Hazards – Typhoon Haiyan

Wildfires

Case Study: Causes of, Impacts of and Responses to Wildfires – Australia

Case Study: Hazardous Settings – Tokyo, Japan

Case Study: Local-Scale Hazardous Setting – California

Exam Technique

Coasts as a System

Coastal Zones

Sources of Energy at the Coast

Erosion, Transportation and Deposition at the Coast

Weathering and Mass Movement at the Coast

Coastal Landforms Created by Erosion

Landforms Created by Deposition at the Coast

Sea Level Change

Recent and Predicted Climate Change and Impacts on Coasts

Sea Level Changes Create Coastlines of Submergence, Emergence and Landscapes

Coastal Management – Hard Engineering

Coastal Management – Soft Engineering and Sustainability

Case Study: Coastal Environment – Holderness Coastline

Case Study: Humans at the Coast – Bangladesh, India

Exam Technique

A Systems Approach

Major Subsystems of the Earth

The Water Cycle – Forms and Stores

The Water Cycle – Flows, Stores and Dynamic Equilibrium

The Water Cycle – The Drainage Basin

The Water Cycle – Water Balance

The Water Cycle – The Storm Hydrograph and Runoff Variations

The Water Cycle – Changes Influencing the Water Cycle Over Time

The Carbon Cycle – Stores

The Carbon Cycle – Flows and Changes

The Carbon Cycle – Human and Natural Changes to the Carbon Cycle Over Time

The Carbon Cycle – Carbon Budget and Impacts

Water, Carbon, Climate and Life on Earth – Supporting Life and Feedback

Water, Carbon, Climate and Life on Earth – Climate Change Impacts and Responses

Case Study: The Tropical Rainfores – Malaysia

Case Study: Local River Basin

Exam Technique

# Human Geography

2 Topics

Human Geography

Human Population Characteristics and Change

Agricultural Systems and Productivity

Relationships Between the Climate and Human Activities

Soils

Strategies to Ensure Food Security

Global Patterns of Health, Mortality and Morbidity, Economic and Social Devleopment and the Epidemiological Model

The Relationship Between Environmental Variables and Incidence of Disease

The Global Prevalence of Malaria

Non-Communicable Disease Incidence: Cancer

Strategies to Eliminate and Mitigate Disease

Case Study: Local Health

Natural Population Change

International Migration

Population Growth Dynamics

Health Impacts of Global Environmental Change

Prospects for the Global Population

Case Study: Population – South Sudan

Exam Technique

Urbanisation and Urban Growth

Factors Influencing Urbanisation

Types of Urbanisation

Urban Change and Policy

Urban Characteristics

Spatial Patterns of Land Use

New Urban Land Uses

Spatial Patterns of Economic Inequalities, Social Segregation and Cultural Diversity

Issues and Responses to Economic Inequalities, Social Segregation and Cultural Diversity

Impacts of Urban Processes on Local Weather and Climate

Drainage in Urban Areas

Urban River Restoration Project: River Cole

Waste and its Disposal

Case Study: Waste – Landfill and Incineration, China

Air Pollution

Water Pollution and Dereliction

Sustainable Cities

Case Study: Sustainability – Manila, Philippines

Case Study: Sustainability – London, UK

Exam Technique

# Physical Chemistry

12 Topics

Physical Chemistry

Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solution & Definition and Determination of pH

The Ionic product of Water & Weak Acids and Bases

pH Curves, Titration and Indicators

Buffer Action

Electrode Potentials and Cells

Commercial Application of Electrochemical Cells

_{p}[A-Level]

Equilibrium Constant K_{p} for Homogenous Systems

Rate Equations

Determination of Rate Equations

Born-Haber Cycles

Gibbs Free-Energy Change and Entropy Change

Oxidation, Reduction and Redox Equations

Chemical Equilibria and Le Chatelier’s Principle

Equilibrium Constant K_{c} for Homogenous Systems

Collision Theory

Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate

Effect of Concentration and Pressure

Catalysts

Enthalpy Change

Calorimetry

Applications of Hess’ Law

Bond Enthalpies

Ionic Bonding

Nature of Covalent Bonding and Dative Covalent Bonds

Metallic Bonds

Bonding and Physical Properties

Shapes of Simple Molecules and Ions

Bond Polarity

Forces Between Molecules

Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass

The Mole and the Avogadro Constant

The Ideal Gas Equation

Empirical and Molecular Formula

Balanced Equations and Associated Calculations

Atomic Structure

Mass Numbers and Isotopes

Mass Spectrometry

Electron Configuration

Electron Ionisation Energies

# Inorganic Chemistry

6 Topics

Inorganic Chemistry

Reactions of Ions in Aqueous Solutions

General Properties of Transition Metals

Substitution Reactions

Shapes of Complex Ions

Formation of Coloured Ions

Variable Oxidation States

Catalysts

Properties of Period 3 Elements and their Oxides

Trends in Properties

Uses of Chlorine and Chlorate

Group 2, the Alkaline Earth Metals

Classification

Physical Properties of Period 3 Elements

# Organic Chemistry

16 Topics

Inorganic Chemistry

Chromatography

NMR Spectroscopy

Organic Synthesis

Amino Acids

Proteins

Enzymes

DNA

Action of Anticancer Drugs

Condensation Polymers

Biodegradability and Disposal of Polymers

Preparation & Base Properties

Nucleophilic Properties

Bonding

Electrophilic Substitution

Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Acylation

Aldehydes and Ketones

Optical Isomerism

Identification of Functional Groups by Test-Tube Reactions

Mass Spectrometry

Infrared Spectroscopy

Alcohol Production

Oxidation of Alcohols

Elimination

Structure, Bonding and Reactivity & Addition Reactions of Alkenes

Addition Polymers

Nucleophilic Substitution

Elimination

Ozone Depletion

Fractional Distillaiton of Crude Oil & Modification of Alkanes by Cracking

Combustion of Alkanes

Chlorination of Alkanes

Nomenclature

Reaction Mechanisms

Isomerism

# AS-Level

6 Topics

AS-Level

Human Resource Management

Soft and Hard Human Resource Management

Labour Productivity

Organisational Design

Organisational Structure

Human Resource Management

Workforce Planning

Motivation in the Workforce

Employer-Employee Relationships

Financial Objectives

Measuring Profits

Cash Flow

Budgeting

Budget Variance

Break Even Analysis

Strengths and Limitations of Break Even Analysis

Internal and External Finance

Operational Objectives

Capacity Utilisation

Efficiency and Productivity

Quality

Managing Inventory

Managing Supply Chains

Relationships with Suppliers

Marketing Objectives

Market Analysis

Market Research

Price Elasticity of Demand (PED)

Segmenting Markets and STP

Marketing Mix

The Boston Matrix

Product Life Cycle

Pricing Decisions

Advertising

Channels of Distribution

Management and Leadership

Effective Leadership

The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum

The Blake Mouton Grid

Scientific Decision Making and Opportunity Cost

The Decision Tree

Stakeholders

Missons, Aims and Objectives

Revenue, Cost and Profit

Different Forms of Business

Business and the External Environment

# A-Level

4 Topics

A-Level

Managing Strategic Change

Business Growth and Economies of Scale

Organic Growth

Inorganic Growth

Innovation

International Markets

Multinational Companies

Multinational Strategy

Digital Technology

Marketing Strategies

Competitive Advantage

Bowman’s Strategic Clock

Strategy

SWOT Analysis

Balance Sheets

Income Statements

Ratios

Gearing

The Scorecard Model

Discrimination

Economic Growth

Price Levels

Fiscal & Monetary Policy

Globalisation

Demographic Changes and Urbanisation

Technology in Business

Porter’s Five Forces

Average Rate of Return

# Module 2

5 Topics

Module 2

Nucleotides and Polynucleotides

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Enzymes

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

Cofactors and Enzyme Inhibition

Exam Technique

Water

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Inorganic Ions

Biochemical Tests for Biological Molecules

Determining the Concentration of a Solution

Separating Molecules Using Chromatography

Exam Technique

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Stem Cells and Differentiation

Cellular Organisation

Exam Technique

Cell Membrane Structure and Function

Factors Affecting Cell Membranes

Transport Across Membranes

Transport of Water Across Membranes

Exam Technique

Cell Structure

Prokaryotic Cells

Microscopy

Microscopy Practical Skills

Exam Technique

# Module 3

1 Topic

Module 3

Exchange Surfaces

Ventilation

Circulatory System

The Mammalian Heart

Haemogoblin

Xylem and Phloem

Transpiration

Translocation

Exam Technique

# Module 4

1 Topic

Module 4

Pathogens and Defence

The Immune System

Immunity and Vaccinations

Measuring Biodiversity

Biodiversity and Conservation

Classification

Variation and Adaptations

Evolution

Exam Technique

# Module 5

4 Topics

Module 5

Chloroplasts

Photosynthesis

Limiting Factors of Photosynthesis

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Exam Technique

Plant Responses

Plant Hormones

The Nervous System

Fight or Flight Response

Muscle Contraction

Exam Technique

The Liver

The Kidneys

Controlling Water Potential of the Blood

Kidney Failure and Urine Analysis

Exam Technique

Homeostasis

Nervous Communication

Synapses

Endocrine System

Control of Temperature

Control of Blood Glucose and Diabetes

Exam Technique

# Module 6

3 Topics

Module 6

Ecosystems

Recycling in Ecosystems

Succession

Conservation of Ecosystems

Exam Technique

PCR and Electrophoresis

Sequencing Genes and Genomes

Manipulating Genomes

Genetic Engineering

Cloning Plants

Cloning Animals

Biotechnology

Exam Technique

Regulating Gene Expression

Variation and Inheritance

Chi-Squared Test

Evolution

Hardy-Weinberg Principle and Artificial Selection

Exam Technique

# GCSE Mathematics - AQA

100 Lessons

100 Lessons

Data [Analysing Data Using Statistics]

Data [Collection and Sampling, Grouped and Ungrouped]

Representing Data [Bar Charts]

Representing Data [Box Plots and Cumulative Frequency Graphs]

Representing Data [Frequency Polygons, Frequency Trees and Histograms]

Representing Data [Line Graphs, Pictograms and Pie Charts]

Representing Data [Scatter Graphs, Stem-Leaf Diagrams and Venn Diagrams]

Measures [Area and Volume Conversion]

Measures [Density and Speed]

Measures [Scales]

Measures [Imperial and Metric System of Measurement]

Measures [Calculating Time and Time Conversions]

Pythagoras’ Theorem [I]

Pythagoras’ Theorem [II]

Similarity [Similar 2D Shapes and Triangles]

Similarity [Congruency]

Similarity [Basic Concepts]

Similarity [Similar Shapes and Comparing Length, Area and Volume]

Geometry [Transformations – Enlargement]

Geometry [Transformations – Line of Symmetry, Reflection]

Geometry [Transformations – Rotational Symmetry]

Geometry [Transformations – Translation]

Geometry [Trigonometry – Introduction]

Geometry [Trigonometry – Area of a Triangle]

Geometry [Trigonometry – Finding Unknown Lengths and Angles]

Geometry [Trigonometry – Isosceles Triangles, Real Life Examples of Angle of Elevation / Depression]

Geometry [Trigonometry – Sine and Cosine Rule]

Geometry [Vectors]

Geometry [Volume and Surface Area]

Angles [I]

Angles [II]

Angles [III]

Shapes [I]

Shapes [II]

Area and Perimeter [Circles – I]

Area and Perimeter [Circles – II]

Area and Perimeter [Quadrilaterals and Triangles]

Area and Perimeter [Compound Shapes – Rectilinear Figures]

Area and Perimeter [Area of Polygons]

Area and Perimeter [Compound Shapes – Perimeter of Polygons]

Bearings [I]

Bearings [II]

Construction [Angles and Lines]

Construction [Triangles]

Construction [Nets, Planes and Elevations]

Construction [Line and Perpendicular Bisectors]

Construction [Angle Bisectors]

Construction [Loci]

Coordinate Geometry [I]

Coordinate Geometry [II]

Coordinate Geometry [III]

Dividing Line Segments Using Ratios

Photosynthetic Reaction & Rate of Photosynthesis

Uses of Glucose from Photosynthesis

Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Responses to Exercise & Metabolism

Introduction to Ratios, Relating Ratios to Fractions and Percentages

Direct and Inverse Proportions with Graphs

Diagrams and Scale Factors

Scale Diagrams and Scale Maps

Congruency

Similarity

Comparing Lengths, Areas and Volumes

Trigonometric Ratios

Percentages [I]

Percentages [II] – Simple Interest

Percentages [III] – Compound Interest

Coefficients and Expressions

Simultaneous Equations

Operations

Inequalities

Inequalities in Word Problems

Graphs of Linear Inequalities

Factorisation in Quadratic Equations

Completing the Square

Quadratic Formula

Graphs of Quadratic Equations

Graphs of Quadratic Inequalities

Algebraic Identities

Rearranging Algebraic Equations

Product of Two Binomials

Sequences

Kinematics

Operations

Decimals [I]

Decimals [II]

Prime Numbers, Common Factors and Prime Factorisation

Product Notation and Sigma Notation

Fractions and Percentages

Indices and its Laws

Rationalisation, Surds and Roots

# GCSE Physics - AQA

70 Lessons

70 Lessons

Our Solar System & The Life Cycle of a Star

Orbital Motion, Natural and Artificial Satellites & Red-Shift

Permanent and Induced Magnetism, Magnetic Forces and Fields

Electromagnetism

Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motors & Loudspeakers

Induced Potential, Transformers and the National Grid

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Properties of Waves

Reflection of Waves & Sound Waves

Waves for Detection and Exploration

Types of Electromagnetic Waves

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves

Uses and Applications of Electromagnetic Waves & Lenses

Visible Light

Black Body Radiation

Scalar and Vector Quantities & Contact and Non-Contact Forces

Gravity

Resultant Forces

Work Done and Energy Transfer

Forces and Elasticity

Moments, Levers and Gears

Pressure in a Fluid

Atmospheric Pressure

Describing Motion Along a Line

Forces, Accelerations and Newton’s Laws of Motion

Forces and Braking

Momentum

The Structure of an Atom & Mass Number, Atomic Number and Isotopes

The Development of the Model of the Atom

Radioactive Decay and Nuclear Radiation

Nuclear Equations

Half-Lives and the Random Nature of Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Contamination & Background Radiation

Different Half-Lives of Radioactive Isotopes

Uses of Nuclear Radiation

Nuclear Fission & Nuclear Fusion

Density of Materials

Changes of State & Internal Energy

Temperature Changes in a System and Specific Heat Capacity

Changes of State and Specific Latent Heat

Particle Motion in Gases

Pressure in Gases & Increasing the Pressure of a Gas

Required Practicals

Standard Circuit Diagram Symbols

Electric Charge and Current

Current, Resistance and Potential Difference & Series and Parallel Circuits

Current, Resistance and Potential Difference [Required Practicals]

Resistors [IV Graphs & Required Practical]

Resistors [Thermistors and LDRs]

Direct and Alternating Potential Difference & Mains Electricity

Power

Energy Transfers in Everyday Appliances

The National Grid

Static Charge & Electric Fields

Energy Stores and Systems

Changes in Energy [KE]

Changes in Energy [EPE]

Changes in Energy [GPE]

Energy Changes in Systems

Power

Energy Transfers in a System

Efficiency

Insulating Materials [Required Practical]

National and Global Energy Resources

# Living with the Physical Environment

5 Topics

Module 1

UK Physical Landscapes

Coastal Processes

Factors Influencing Erosional Coastal Landforms

Coastal Depositional Landforms

Management of the Coastline – Hard Engineering

Sustainable Soft Engineering Management

Characteristics of Cold Environments

Opportunities and Challenges of Cold Environments

Economic Development in Cold Environments

Characteristics of Hot Deserts

Opportunities and Challenges of Hot Deserts

Desertification

Ecosystems

Tropical Rainforests

Tropical Rainforest Deforestation

Management of Tropical Rainforests

Exam Technique

Natural Hazards

Tectonic Hazards

Response and Management

Weather Hazards

Tropical Storms

Weather Events in the UK

Climate Change

Exam Technique

# Challenges in the Human Environment

3 Topics

Module 2

The UK’s Food Resources

The UK’s Water Problem

Energy Issues in the UK

Exam Technique

Classification of Countries and Measuring Development

Causes of Development

Causes of Uneven Development

Consequences of Uneven Development

Reducing the Development Gap

Rapid Economic Development in Nigeria

The Role of Different Groups in Managing Economic Development in Nigeria

Economic Change and Industrialisation in the UK

Developments in Rural Areas of the UK

Exam Technique

Global Urbanisation

Lagos Opportunities

The Challenges in Lagos

Urban Change and Opportunities in the UK

Challenges in London

Urban Sustainability

Managing Traffic Congestion

Exam Technique

# Geographical Applications

3 Topics

Module 3

Global Demand for Energy

Impacts of Energy Security

Strategies to Increase Energy Supply

A Sustainable Future for Energy

Global Demand for Water

Strategies to Increase Water Supply

Sustainable Water Resources

The Demand for Global Food Resources

The Strategies to Increase Food Supply

Sustainable Agriculture

# Literature - Paper 1

4 Topics

Shakespeare and the 19th-Century Novel

A Christmas Carol

Jekyll and Hyde

Romeo and Juliet

Macbeth

# Literature - Paper 2

4 Topics

Modern Texts and Poetry

Flyp Academy

Flyp Academy

Flyp Academy

# Language - Paper 1

2 Topics

Day two of the conference will be devoted to learning about content creation.

Flyp Academy

Flyp Academy

# Language - Paper 2

2 Topics

Day two of the conference will be devoted to learning about content creation.

Flyp Academy

Flyp Academy

# GCSE Chemistry - AQA

69 Lessons

69 Lessons

Using the Earth’s Resources and Sustainable Development

Potable Water

Waste Water Treatment

Alternative Methods of Extracting Metals

Life Cycle Assessment

Ways of Reducing the Use of Resources

Corrosion and its Prevention

Alloys as Useful Materials

Ceramics, Polymers and Composites

The Haper Process

Production and Uses of NPK Fertilisers

The Proportions of Different Gases in the Atmosphere & The Earth’s Early Atmosphere

How Oxygen Increased & How Carbon Dioxide Decreased

Greenhouse Gases, Human Activities & Global Climate Change

The Carbon Footprint and its Reduction

Atmospheric Pollutants from Fuels & Properties and Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants

Pure Substances & Formulations

Chromatography

Tests for Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Chlorine

Flame Tests, Metal Hydroxides, Carbonates, Halides & Sulfates

Instrumental Methods & Flame Emission Spectroscopy

Crude Oil, Hydrocarbons and Alkanes & Fractional Distillation and Petrochemicals

Properties of Hydrocarbons & Cracking and Alkenes

Structure and Formulae of Alkenes & Reactions of Alkenes

Alcohols

Carboxylic Acids

Addition Polymerisation

Condensation Polymerisation

Amino Acids

DNA and Other Naturally Occurring Polymers

Calculating Rates of Reactions & Factors Affecting the Rates of Chemical Reactions

Collision Theory and Activation Energy

Catalysts

Reversible Reactions, Energy Changes and Equilibrium

The Effect of Changing Conditions on Equilibrium & The Effect of Changing Concentration

The Effect of Temperature & Pressure Changes on Equilibrium

Infectious Diseases, Viral Diseases & Bacterial DiseasesEnergy Transfer During Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

Reaction Profiles & The Energy Change of Reactions

Cells and Batteries & Fuel Cells

Fungal Diseases & Protist Diseases

Human Defence Systems & Vaccination

Antibiotics and Painkillers & Discovery and Development of Drugs

Monoclonal Antibodies

Plant Disease

Metal Oxides, The Reactivity Series, Extraction of Metals and Reduction & Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Electrons

Reactions of Acids with Oxides, Neutralisation of Acids and Salt Production & Soluble Salts

The pH Scale and Neutralisation & Titration

Strong and Weak Acids

The Process of Electrolysis

Electrolysis of Molten Ionic Compounds, Using Electrolysis to Extract Metals & Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions

Representation of Reactions at Electrodes as Half Equations

Conservation of Mass and Balanced Chemical Equations & Relative Formula Mass

Mass Changes when Reacting or Producing Gases & Chemical Measurements

Moles & Amounts of Substances in Equations

Using Moles to Balance Equations & Limiting Reactants

Concentration of Solutions

Percentage Yield

Chemical Bonds, Ionic Bonding & Ionic Compounds

Covalent Bonding

Metallic Bonding

The Three States of Matter & State Symbols

Properties of Ionic Compounds & Properties of Small Molecules

Polymers & Giant Covalent Structures

Properties of Metals and Alloys & Metals as Conductors

Diamond, Graphite & Graphene and Fullerenes

Sizes of Particles and their Properties & Uses of Nanoparticles

Atoms, Elements and Compounds & Mixtures

The Development of the Model of the Atom

Relative Electrical Charges of Subatomic Particles, Size and Mass of Atoms & Relative Atomic Mass

Electronic Structure

The Periodic Table & Its Development

Metals and Non-Metals & Group 0

Group 1 & Group 7

Comparison with Group 1 Elements & Typical Properties

# GCSE Business - AQA

52 Lessons

52 Lessons

How to Answer Questions in GCSE Business [I]

How to Answer Questions in GCSE Business [II]

Sources of Finance

Break Even

Income Statement

Statement of Financial Position

Marketing Mix [Price]

Marketing Mix [Product]

Marketing Mix [Promotion]

Marketing Mix [Place]

Market Research [I]

Market Research [II]

Market Research [Extension Strategies and Product Portfolio]

Organisational Structures [I]

Organisational Structures [II]

Centralisation

Contracts of Employment

Recruitment

Staff Training

Motivation

Methods of Production [Job & Batch Production]

Methods of Production [Flow Production]

Methods of Production [JIT Production]

The Role of Procurement

Supply Chains

Procurement and Logistics

Quality

Total Quality Management

Customer Service

Technology and Customer Service

Legislation

Technology and Business

Ethical Considerations

Environmental Considerations

Interest Rates

Competition

Globalisation

Exchange Rates

Risks in Business

Why Businesses Exist

Sectors of the Economy

Enterprise

Factors of Production

Business Ownership Structures [Sole Traders & Partnerships]

Business Ownership Structures [Limited & Private Limited Companies]

Business Ownership Structures [Non-Profits & Charities]

Aims and Objectives

Stakeholders

The Business Plan

Business Location

Methods of Expansion

Outsourcing

### What to expect.

As a student, grades matter. And A-Levels? They matter even more. Flyp Academy helps you get the A-Level Physics grade you want with your friends, so you can get on with being the person you want to be. Our Free A-Level Physics AQA Resources are designed to be as accessible and easy-to-use as possible. Just create your account, select ‘A-Level Physics – AQA‘ as a course to enrol in, and get started with our videos, notes, quizzes and practice exams.

## Frequently Asked Questions

If you have any further questions, please reach out to us at [email protected]

A-Level Physics is an exam usually taken at the end of Year 13 in the UK. It consists of three papers, and tests a variety of valuable physics concepts.

Although Physics is often thought to be a tough subject, with proper preparation you can no doubt be very successful on the final exams. It is a marked as a totally objective subject, meaning that you are able to track yourself and your progress very easily.

The Physics A-Level course covers a variety of topics, focusing on measurements, particles, radiation, waves, mechanics, materials, electricity, thermal physics, fields, nuclear physics, astrophysics, medical physics, engineering physics and electronics.

Everyone can succeed with different preparation styles, and with different revision methods. We recommend going through our videos on Flyp Academy alongside the syllabus, and then testing yourself immediately afterwards. After doing this consistently, go through some past papers!

Don’t worry! You can always retake the exam, or you can move on and study something else. Failing an exam is never the end of the world – but if you don’t want to fail, get through our course!

As many as you’d like, or as many as you need to succeed! Don’t stress over not receiving the grades you’d like to have initially.

You can resit it again, of course! Depending on which application you’re sending results to, you are generally asked to provide your highest scores. This means you can keep your initial score if you miss your targets later.

Resits cost upwards of £100 pounds, varying across the AQA, Edexcel, OCR, CIE and other boards.